Journal "Socionics, mentology and personality psychology", N 1, 2000.
Socionics: humanitarian, social, political and information intellectual technologies of the XXI century
Keywords: socionics, psychology, sociology, humanity technologies, social technologies, informational technologies, political science, armed forces reform, administrative reforms, pedagogic, informational science, personnel management, education, ethnology.
The table of intellectual socionic technologies
1. Humanitarian technologies
2. Social technologies (management, production, business)
3. Socionic technologies and society
The table of intellectual socionic technologies
|Humanitarian technologies||Methods of training, organization of system education, family, psycho-informational compatibility, models of mentality and their practical application; psychotherapy; deep psychoanalysis, medicine.|
|Social technologies||Personnel management (selection and arrangement of the staff); an integrated informational portrait of organization; revealing of weak features; creation of highly effective collectives for the certain purposes; administrative reforms; economic reforms and their ideological maintenance; reforming and reduction of army number; formation of "brain storm" groups, of "cells of quality".|
|Political technologies||Integrated socionics; ethno-socionics; definition of ethnos and state mentality; methods of propaganda and agitation, advertising; formation of ideologies, realization of home and foreign policy; elective technologies with the account of the voters mentality; interaction of politicians and nations; the international relations; interaction between the states; the international relations; system interaction of ethnoses and super-ethnoses; problems of the state information security; creation of the state image abroad; development of the legislation, sphere of the law.|
|Informative technologies||"Human-system", "operator-computer" problems; types of interaction with technical and electronic systems; new technologies of processing of the information; adaptive interfaces; creation of artificial intellect.|
1 - Russian Academy of Sciences has admitted Socionics as discovery in 1995. And its founder - Aushra Augustinavichute - has been awarded with diploma on discovery and with medal of P.L.Kapitza. Back
1. Humanitarian technologiesThe structure of the human mentality, which is reflected in types of mentality (so called types of information metabolism), is developed and described in effective models in socionics. The socionic description of mentality type gives deep understanding of thinking style, motivation and actions of the concrete person, strong and weak features of his mentality, ability to perceive and to process the various information, which he separates to different aspects of information flow. Therefore the socionic methods are applied to pedagogics. The features of the information assimilation are determined by type of mentality (or by psycho-informational type). Therefore socionics prompts the form of training and stimulating of the pupils, peculiarities of teaching methods for various type groups, advisability of those or other subjects teaching in the certain age. Socionics enables also to form optimal educational groups, the progress and discipline of the pupils considerably rise in a result [35, 36, 50, 63].
Knowing socionic methods the teachers and tutors can effectively cooperate with the pupils both at a personal, and at a group level.
Socionics offers new technologies for organization of educational process, optimizing training [30-32, 64-66, 70]. Thus it is possible to increase volume of educational material with simultaneous increase of its assimilation degree. Load on the pupil mentality is reduced because he works on most advanced mental (psycho-informational) functions and less advanced functions are reasonably training.
Thus, the application of socionic technologies in pedagogics enables to intensify the training process with complete development of the person of pupil in conditions of information explosion.
Knowing the bases of socionics parents can more adequately approach to educational process of their children, to determine their natural propensities. Socionics is used actively in work with the teenagers for the decision of their problems [60, 61, 63].
Socionics also expands the methods of deep psychoanalysis, allows to conduct therapy of a number of mental frustration more effectively [40-44, 46, 82]. For example, in field of narcology effective socionic methods for the patients are developed and demonstrate good results [59, 75].
The knowledge of psycho-informational structure of a type allows proposing the reasonable recommendations for professional orientation and professional suitability [33, 34, 74, 76]. These recommendations are confirmed by long-term research of real industrial collectives by staff members of the International Institute of Socionics .
It is necessary to note that the socionic methods are rather effective, are practical and work at a deeper level, than other technology e.g. neuro-lingvistic programming (NLP). Socionics, in particular, within the model of mentality structure allocates 8 (16) differentiated channels (corresponding to 16 types of person) against 3 (4) in NLP.
The socionic methods not only describe structures of personal mentality, but also predict interactions and relation between the people. Socionics allocates 16 types of the relations — from most attractive and comfortable up to disputed. The understanding of a nature of these relations helps to solve a number of problems of the interpersonal relations, including aspects of psychological and sexual compatibility. The researches of married couples have shown that the family relations submit to the laws, which are opened by socionics . Socionic technologies are used in family consultation (relations between the parents, children, and problem of education etc.) [56, 60, 61].
In medicine it was revealed, that the selection of the people by the certain groups of types enables to carry out group psychotherapy more effectively. And the selection of the patients in groups with the comfortable relations due to their optimum psycho-informational interaction significantly reduced (in 1,3-2 times) time they stay in hospital ward (after operations, in recreation etc.). At the same time adverse relations in small groups result in aggravation of chronic or in occurrence of new psychosomatic diseases [62, 79, 83].
The predisposition of psycho-informational types to certain diseases was also discovered, connections with the concepts of east medicine were traced, and the recommendations for prevention of a number of diseases are offered .
2. Social technologies (management, production, business)The socionic knowledge allows organizing business management or production more effectively. Firstly, this means an optimum selection of the staff and its arrangement with the account of psycho-informational compatibility, which provides both business, and psychological compatibility. Thus the creation of the rallied adherent teams with high efficiency, in which mutual strengthening and support of actions each other take place, is possible. The International Institute of Socionics staff members have studied more than 70 enterprises of the countries of CIS. The researches shown high efficiency of application of socionic technologies in management during reorganization or formation of collectives of any structure — administrative, productive, commercial, law-enforcement, service or trade — for the certain task, taking into account the person of the chief [19, 15, 24, 33, 34, 38, 49, 52, 62, 68, 69, 72]. The formation of quality cells by the Japanese sample is also possible in productive collectives. However socionic methods enable to form groups deciding tasks much more effectively, than randomly assembled ones. This also concerns the problems of "brain storm". With the help of socionic technologies it is possible to form groups, in which a resonance between individual mentalities appears and "collective hyperbrain" is formed during decision of problems. Repeated experiments carried out in International Institute of Socionics show a high overall performance of such groups. Thus the complex problem is solved with multilateral consideration of all its aspects in a short time (8-12 minutes). The similar groups in collective management are rather effective.
At the same time there are groups, in which the transfer of the information is complicated, and the problems are solved with the hard work. Evidently the socionic technologies give significant advantage to organizations using them in conditions of market competition.
Knowing socionics it is also possible to estimate the business partners, to prognosis their behavior, their degree of reliability, to develop strategy of business negotiation and to determine the prospects of cooperation. Socionics helps to understand motives of other people, and this enable to make the decisions on co-operation forms with certain partners.
Social socionic technologies allow determining a level of comfort or discomfort for each member of collective, his efficiency in the certain collective. The knowledge of integral type of collective as a whole also helps the chief to operate it more effectively, to understand its problems and processes, occurring in it. So, the International Institute of Socionics staff members have made a prognosis of strike in collective half-year before it has taken place, analyzing socionic factors of interaction in a managing part. It could be prevented, if these warnings have listened to. Bad psycho-informational interaction in administration of the enterprise and inability to react adequately to problems of the collective was the reason of strike .
The socionic analysis of activity of the enterprise or firm allows to determine its weak features, a degree of its vulnerability under the change of market situation or actions of the competitors and to accept the appropriate measures.
The distribution of functional roles in collective or small group is closely connected with socionic, psycho-informational structure of collective. It allows purposefully to form resonant collectives in scientific, humanitarian, social, productive, technological and other fields depending on the certain task [15, 17, 19, 83].
Now International Institute of Socionics together with IASC (USA, California) develops the program of training of personnel service staff of enterprises in socionic technologies as the second higher education.
The socionic methods have shown the efficiency in business-structures, in banks, insurance and broker companies, in management teams, in industrial collectives of the most various structure (production of minerals, construction, production of drinks, mechanical engineering, repair, transport, departments of a Management Information System etc.), in trade (from single shop up to associations), in sphere of service, medicine and tourism . So, the studies have shown necessity of socionics application in acquisition of crews in the aircraft . This is also true for crews of the space ships, submarines, ships of distant navigation, for crews of battle machines, groups of the special assignment (fire protection, the ministry of extreme situations staff members, special mission troops, etc.), for Polar and other expeditions.
The socionic technologies can play a special role in realization of reform of army. The reduction of army with preservation and even increase of its fighting capacity can be achieved by wide application of socionic technologies. There is possible synergetic increase of efficiency in several times in collectives assembled by socionic methods by a principle of maximal psycho-informational compatibility in comparison with collectives assembled arbitrary . Especially it concerns micro-collectives, serving complex engineering: divisions of air defense, crews of battle machines, service of technical maintenance. So, the coordination of work of accounts will allow to lower sharply a degree of breakage of engineering by the young military men. Besides it is possible to predict an increase of troops management quality, improvement of a moral climate in army collectives, reduction of amount of the unauthorized relations, desertion etc. It in full degree concerns also frontier-troops, in which frontier guards represent the closed collectives.
Thus, socionic technologies allow to open human potential, to use psycho-informational resources of individual and social mentality.
Many aspects of design and architecture concern to social technologies produced by socionics: what for one type of the person is pleasant and harmonious, for another can look ugly or disharmonious. Therefore taking into account type and other aesthetic-information values allows offering optimum variants in this field.
The problems of engineering psychology are also closely connected to these problems. With the help of socionic methods it is possible to create the engineering decisions on designing and trimming of premises, technical devices and systems, which are optimum suitable for the workers. New methods are also developed for problem "human-system", "human-computer", which optimize interaction of the human with complex technical and electronic systems according to his features of psycho-informational perception and reactions . This is especially important in management of such systems, as atomic power stations, chemical manufactures, rocket complexes, etc., where the mistake of the operator can result in serious consequences.
By socionic methods it is possible to determine types of interaction of the human with technical systems, and also to predict the tendencies of development of such systems [25, 29].
The new laws of structuring by the human consciousness of different volumes of the information, including memory and thinking, were open in socionics. This gives new opportunities for advertising, management, and creation of new computing algorithms and systems of information processing .
Works on using of socionic methods in artificial intellect systems are conducted at present, because only taking into account a real psycho-informational structure of mentality, described in socionics, enables to simulate human intellect all-roundly. The similar works on creation of the adaptive computer interface, adapting for the concrete operator or user are carried out .
3. Socionic technologies and societySocionic technologies allow to work effectively with collectives of any level of complexity, using the laws of functioning of their psycho-informational space, and supplement essentially sociological research methods. So, the research of the population, suffered from failure on Chernobyl atomic station, carried out by institute of sociology of NAS of Ukraine together with the International Institute of Socionics, has allowed to give the concrete recommendations for social work with migrants [7, 23].
The methods of integral socionics have enabled to establish precise structure of ethnos mentality. The knowledge of this structure, system of perception and estimation of the reality, cultural and historical ethnos features and its state structures has helped to create a number of social and political technologies directed on optimum control of the ethnos or the state, improvement of conditions of their vitality and existence. So the definition of integral types of ethnoses or nations helps to understand the strong and weak features of concrete ethnos, origins of its problems and difficulties, to give the concrete recommendations for overcoming (or indemnification) them [8, 11, 16, 37].
|Irrationality, intuitiveness, dreaminess, producing of advanced ideas, designs, inventiveness; introversion, separation from the rest world, Messianism||T1||E2||Emotionality, necessity of empathy in any relations (including business)|
|Vulnerable, weak and painful business logic, impracticality, failing to introduce new technologies in industry; social neurosis at market relations.||P4||S3|
|L6||F5||Suggestive function: thirst of strong hand and order, submission to any organized structures - from state up to criminal|
|Introversion: tendency to decide important problems in secret, privately, aspiration of self-isolation, closed society. Transpersonal, related and social relations have a great value.||R1||I2||Producing of ideas, mainly in humanitarian sphere. Belief in its peculiarity, exceptionalism.|
|Weak ability to resist external pressure, social phobias and neurosis in connection with imagined threats, absence of resistance to administrative-command apparatus actions at all levels.||F4||L3|
|S6||P5||Suggestions by receive of money, credits etc.; quick formation of dependence on the creditors|
|E7||T8||Orientation on the past, "glorious traditions", conservatism|
|Extravert expansion of capital and extension of political influence on the whole world. Dominant of business, financial logic, utmost development and encouragement of enterprise activity, development and fast implantation of the newest technologies.||P1||T2||Perfect vision of perspective directions in economy, science, engineering etc., tendency to the future.|
|Concern about "healthy life style", prohibition of smoking etc.||S4||E3|
|Pride in its military power, activation at collision with the imagined or real opponent, for example with dictatorial regimes.||F6||R5||Suggestive function: watching moral appearance of public figures, creation of public opinion depending on politician private lives estimation|
Fig.1. Fragments of Russia, Ukraine and USA ethnos mentality models
At present International Institute of Socionics has investigated in detail psycho-informational structure of the majority of large ethnoses and states of Europe, America and Asia, has constructed effective psycho-informational models of their functioning, which describe well processes occurring in these countries. For example, the structures of ethnoses of Russia, Ukraine and USA are given in fig.1. The strong features and problems of ethnos are well visible. So, the business, "money" logic (P) in USA psycho-informational structure is a leading function of perception and action of American mentality, that determines a level of economic development of this country and its leading role in this field at a global level . At the same time in Russian or Ukrainian psycho-informational structure this function is in a problem zone — hence complications with realization of economic reforms in absence of the purposeful program of psycho-informational adaptation of the country to reforms .
The knowledge of psycho-informational structure brings appropriate social technologies for the state government. It is possible to determine easily expediency of that or those steps, as far as they will be accepted by a society. So, the economic reforms in Russia under a management of Е.Gaydar were carried out under the recipes developed in conditions of western ethnoses and countries mentality, which sharply differs from Russian. Not taking into account of this circumstance has caused unexpected huge inflationary jump as a result of reaction of one mentality type on actions of other mentality type . Meanwhile due to the count of psycho-informational structure of the peoples of Russia, Ukraine and other countries of CIS it is possible to propose the recipes on optimum realization of economic and social reforms with the minimal expenditures.
System character of tensions and instability in a society, character of its political, social, humanitarian and cultural preferences are easily determined by the socionic methods, the structure of motivation and cultural installations of the people or ethnos, including their regional variants is revealed and ranged. So, our study of problems of alcoholism and drug addiction has shown their precise connection with structure of ethnos mentality (for example, Russian). It is possible to offer the concrete social programs on struggle with these problems .
The opening of the laws of ethnoses and states structure evolution as a psycho-informational systems (so-called law of quadra change [Bukalov, Gulenko, 1988]) allows to describe adequately and to predict historical and socio-political processes occurring in a society .
Socionic technologies have appeared to be the perfect tool for forecasting of political process . On an acknowledgment of Yu.Osipov, the president of the Russian Academy of Sciences, processes that have taken place in Russia in XX century: the arise of the totalitarian USSR state and its disintegration, processes of "perestroyka" and formation of the new Russian state and other countries of CIS - are unclear and not explained phenomena. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine has similar opinion. Meanwhile that what is unsolvable by becoming outdated traditional approaches is easily solved by socionic methods. They allow not only to analyze occurring events, but also to influence them actively, to direct them to the necessary direction, using knowledge of the strong and weak features of any social group: collective, party, nation, ethnos or state.
So, socionic analysis of socio-political processes has allowed making a number of conclusions in 1989-1999 :
- Frequently discussed question of possible ways of historical development of Russia after the World War I has received the unequivocal decision: the arrival to power of the Bolshevik party led by V.Lenin, as a structure dual for ethnos, had no alternative and was unequivocally predetermined by all course of historical development.
- The conclusion about inevitable disintegration USSR into the separate states in conditions of the third quadra leadership (as group of types with similar mentality), led by М.Gorbachev, and of so-called process of perestroyka, induced by it, was made within the same model. This prognosis has proved in 1991.
- We made the prognosis of results of Russia president election on the basis of the law of quadra change and model of mentality of Russian ethnos, which has proved with election of B.Eltzin.
- Analytically it was shown that the quadra change, influencing psycho-informational structure of the state and system of its priorities, temporarily results in disorder in economy and decrease of a vital level of the population. The amount of free information in a society, uncontrollable by the state, sharply grows (see Fig.2).
- The conclusion about hopelessness of putsch 19-21 August 1991 (second quadra) and similar to it in epoch of domination of the third quadra was formulated.
- Socionic analysis of interaction between parliament of Russia led by R.Khazbulatov (FL (SLE)) and president of Russia B.Eltzin (PT (LIE)) was done in 1992. This analysis has shown, that the contradictions between integral structures of β-quadra (parliament) and γ-quadra (president and his team), despite of the individual relations of the social order between B.Eltzin and R.Khazbulatov, lead to inevitable confrontation on aspect of strong-willed sensorics (F). This power interaction results in the Moscow, 1993 events (attack of Ostankino, shelling "of a White House"). The vice-president of Russia A.Ruzkoy (LF (LSI)), by virtue of his belonging to second quadra (β), in conditions of polarization of forces has appeared on the side of the parliament.
- The prognoses of some politologists about aspiration B. Eltsin to dictatorship was specified not were reasonable, because the belonging of the first president of Russia to the third quadra (γ), characterized by attribute of Reinin - democratism, excludes such development of events.
- We made the prognosis about significant success of LDPR party led by V.Zirinovsky in connection with election to State Duma of Russia. Any sociological school did not expect this success, however it naturally followed from features of the relations such as information metabolism V.Zirinovsky and mentality of Russian ethnos.
- Disintegration of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRYu) into the separate independent states (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Macedonia and Serbia with Montenegro) is one more example of proved prognosis.
- In the beginning of 1994 the author made a conclusion by the modeling ethno-socionics about distribution of chances of the applicants for a position of the second president of Ukraine in the following sequence: L.Kuchma, L.Kravchuk, V.Lanovoy, which has proved in practice.
- The similar analysis of possible results of election of the third president of Ukraine has shown that L.Kuchma had the highest chances of re-election, by virtue of favorable intertype relations of activation with mentality of the population of Ukraine.
- Popularity of V.Putin and the approval of his actions by the majority of the population of Russia are connected with his psycho-informational resonant quadral interaction with mentality of the Russians .
Socionic technologies help to carry out economic and social reforms with a peak efficiency, effective reorganization and reduction of the administrative apparatus, personnel selection on all levels of state and corporate management, formation of the necessary decisions and their implementation with the appropriate ideological and propaganda maintenance, taking into account mentality of the population.
Reforms in the Army, Ministry of Internal Affairs and other services, reduction of their staff, preserving or increasing efficiency of their actions, belong as marked above to the same problems.
Thus political socionic technologies allow to determine structure of the population mentality of any certain region and to influence successfully its mood. Such technology gives politicians an opportunity to conduct the effective election company both on regional, and on state level, concentrating forces, resources and money on concrete precisely outlined directions, especially important for given electorate, instead of their irrational use and dispersion. Creation of politician images, power structures, parties, other public and commercial organizations, correct illumination of their actions in mass media, and also questions of effective commercial advertisement also concerns this problem.
The reforms in a society are inseparable from legal aspects. Each society forms aspects of the law, both formal, and informal, according to its mentality, policy etc. Many legal aspects of the totalitarian state, and especially its power aspect, penitentiary system, have remained practically constant despite of disintegration USSR and the crash of communist system. A number of "blanks" was formed in the legislation, which allow abusing of official standing, committing of economic and other crimes. Actually, "black holes" in economy derive from "white spots" in the legislation. The socionic methods help to find out and to eliminate such "blanks", that promotes development of a society, its economic and legal stability .
|α -||maximum of free information, circulating in a society and a minimum of its implementation (materialisation)|
|β -||formation of centralised, up to totalitarian, control structure with realisation of monumental projects is accompanied by sharp decrease of free information circulation in a society - it is transformed in "construction of the age""|
|γ -||"perestroyka": the increase of freely circulating information is accompanied with disorganisation of administrative-command system, its economical, social and productive structures.|
|δ -||phase of stabilisation: almost all free information is connected with material, technological and other achievements of a society. Minimal quantity of essentially new ideas, conservatism.|
|Fig.2. The universal diagrams of free (ρ(I)) and materialized (ρ(E)) information circulation in socium.|
The problem of state ideology formation and its consecutive implementation at all levels is especially important. It is obvious, that the effective state could not exist without clear ideology. Politological socionic technologies allow forming such ideology, which would be acceptable to the overwhelming majority of the population and would be the stabilizer in post-communist society deideologized and disoriented.
Knowing structure of nations and ethnoses mentality, socionics can analyze the international relations, which frequently are the sources of conflicts. The features of interaction of various nations in the multinational states, such as, for example, Russia, are well described. This also concerns the problems of organized criminality frequently having regional or national character. So, the specialization of kinds of the Caucasian groupages activity is well described by methods of ethno-socionics.
But the international relations are a part of interaction of the states and nations on the international arena. Many aspects of the relations between the countries could be described by methods of integral socionic. The majority of the conflicts are connected with collisions of the state mentality expressed in their foreign policy. Collision of USA with Iraq or Serbia or other countries, conflict between Israel and Arabian states are naturally explained by integral socionics [8-11, 71].
Relations between carriers of Japanese and American mentality, between America and Russia, America and Ukraine, Russia and Ukraine are also easily described. It is obvious, that the knowledge of features of national mentality is necessary both in Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in other foreign economic organizations. Such organizations as Eurounion are also similarly described. Socionics can give the direct recommendations for interaction with the concrete state and its leaders, prognosis of their actions. This also concerns a state of mind and possible acts of the politicians, who could come to power. The real deeds are known to differ from pre-election slogans very much. Socionics also allows describing of psycho-informational structure of corporations and international organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF). This allows to estimate at once an acceptability of the recommendations of similar organizations for certain country: because it is no secret, that the majority of the IMF projects in the developing countries were unsuccessful due to ignoring of national mentality and cultural features.
At the same time taking into account this phenomenon helps to create by socionic methods the adapted programs of economic development, which are not included in the tough contradiction with local customs and traditions. The correctly organized information campaign in the developed countries could ensure the investments and positive attitude of wide public circles of these countries to activity of the government, its home and foreign policy.
It is necessary also to note, that socionics allocates natural groups of types with similar mentality. This concept could be applied to super-ethnoses: Western European, Slavo-Russian (orthodox), Arab-Moslem, Latin American and other represent such groups of types in socionic terms.
The characteristics of such mentality groups as super-ethnoses, consists in the certain similarity and identical relation to the representatives of other group. So, for example, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia form group mentally distinguished from other countries of the former USSR, and now of CIS. They gravitate to Western European super-ethnos. Not casually the citizens of the USSR considered East-country as "Soviet West" at a level of ordinary consciousness.
The interaction of super-ethnoses has a system character, and the collisions have especially heavy consequences. So, the war in Yugoslavia after its disintegration was especially bloody because of 3 super-ethnoses confrontation: Slavo-Russian, Western and Moslem. On the contrary, the USSR disintegration had a peaceful character due to dominance of Slavo-Russian super-ethnos and absence of collisions with other super-ethnoses.
Integral socionics allows to analyze the similar contradictions and to formulate principles of effective elucidative and propaganda activity in other super-ethnoses for adequate perception of the information by them. Otherwise information and motivation of different mentality are not perceived: the opinion about wiliness in behavior of another super-ethnos representatives and necessity of their punishment, introduction of the political, economic and military sanctions affirms in public consciousness.
4. ConclusionsThus, socionic technologies cover all spheres of humanitarian, social, productive, economic and political activity of the man. Socionics acts as the meta-language allowing operating huge amount of information in curtailed, packed form. It just as in small weight of substance, according to A. Einstein, the huge energy contains.
The human civilization enters a new phase of its development, in which information technologies, such as Internet, are determining. Socionics, in turn, offers psycho-informational technologies, which allow human consciousness to be on the same level with achievements of information and electronic technologies. It is known that when human thinking is behind technical development of a society this result in huge quantity of social problems.
Being an independent organization, the International Socionic institute is open for cooperation with state, public and private structures in training socionic technologies and their practical application.
Existing and created socionic technologies stimulate, in turn, development of new information technologies, and this process goes with acceleration. It is obviously, that societies, countries, states fully using socionic methods and technologies, receive significant advantage against sociums and states not using them. Economic jump, which some countries of CIS, especially deprived of energetic or other natural resources, want to make, is hardly possible without intensive application of socionic technologies at all levels of society and state organization.
The countries and societies, which could not or do not want to use socionic methods, can lose in due course their advantage. At the same time for the developing countries, for the countries experiencing the period of reforms, socionic technologies can become that real tool, which will help to make qualitative jump in economic, industrial, social, scientific and defensive spheres and to occupy a worthy place in XXI century.
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